27-04-13

US. military intelligence and chemical weapons

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United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, against post-revolutionary Iran, included several billion dollars worth of economic aid, the sale of dual-use technology, non-U.S. origin weaponry, military intelligence, Special Operations training, and direct involvement in warfare against Iran.

Support from the U.S. for Iraq was not a secret and was frequently discussed in open session of the Senate and House of Representatives. On June 9, 1992, Ted Koppel reported on ABC's Nightline, "It is becoming increasingly clear that George Bush, operating largely behind the scenes throughout the 1980s, initiated and supported much of the financing, intelligence, and military help that built Saddam's Iraq into the power it became", and "Reagan/Bush administrations permitted—and frequently encouraged—the flow of money, agricultural credits, dual-use technology, chemicals, and weapons to Iraq."

Photo: 1980s. Carlos Cardoen, arms dealer to Iraq and former friend of the U.S. government, meets with former Iraqi Leader Saddam Hussein.

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Apr 27, 2013 - 'Dutch Iran-Iraq war profiteer guilty of war crimes'
Iraq used chemical weapons against Iranians and the Kurdish population of Halabja. A Dutch businessman who sold chemicals for weapons production to former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein has pleaded guilty to war crime charges.
The Dutch Supreme Court found Frans van Anraat guilty of providing Saddam Hussein with US and Japanese chemicals, which were used to produce poison gas.
http://edition.presstv.ir/detail/100008.html

June 17, 2004 - 'How Reagan Armed Saddam with Chemical Weapons'
On August 18, 2002, the New York Times carried a front-page story headlined, "Officers say U.S. aided Iraq despite the use of gas". Quoting anonymous US "senior military officers", the NYT "revealed" that in the 1980s, the administration of US President Ronald Reagan covertly provided "critical battle planning assistance at a time when American intelligence knew that Iraqi commanders would employ chemical weapons in waging the decisive battles of the Iran-Iraq war". The story made a brief splash in the international media, then died.
http://www.counterpunch.org/2004/06/17/how-reagan-armed-saddam-with-chemical-weapons/

January 1st, 2012 - Financial Times: UK secretly supplied Saddam: http://www.kavehfarrokh.com/news/12873/

Iran-Iraq War 1980 to 1988 - Part 2 of 3
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6s-Fs4RnFY
http://youtu.be/H6s-Fs4RnFY

13-08-12

Syria: 'US sets up teams with Israel, Jordan, Turkey against chemical attack’

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The United States last week began laying plans for the contingency of Syrian chemical warfare by setting up joint military, intelligence and medical working teams with Israel, Turkey and Jordan, all of which are feared under threat by Syrian president Bashar Assad, debkafile’s military sources report.

DEBKAfile, August 12, 2012

Photo: A baby in Tu Du Hospital suffering from the consequences of Agent Orange being dropped on Vietnam 30 years ago.

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Victims of American chemical weapons

As the United States is the most advanced industrial nation in world it was able to make full use of the latest developments in technology in its war against North Vietnam. B-52 bombers, that could fly at heights that prevented them being seen or heard, dropped 8 million tons of bombs on Vietnam between 1965 and 1973. This was over three times the amount of bombs dropped throughout the whole of the Second World War and worked out at approximately 300 tons for every man, woman and child living in Vietnam.

As well as explosive bombs the United States Air Force dropped a considerable number of incendiary devices. The most infamous of these was napalm, a mixture of petrol and a chemical thickner which produces a tough sticky gel that attaches itself to the skin. The igniting agent, white phosphorus, continues burning for a considerable amount of time. A reported three quarters of all napalm victims in Vietnam were burned through to the muscle and bone (fifth degree burns). The pain caused by the burning is so traumatic that it often causes death.

The US also made considerable use of anti-personnel bombs. The pineapple bomb was made up of 250 metal pellets inside a small canister. Gloria Emerson, a reporter in Vietnam, witnessed their use: “An American plane could drop a thousand pineapples over an area the size of four football fields. In a single air strike two hundred and fifty thousand pellets were spewed in a horizontal pattern over the land below, hitting everything on the ground.”

The United States also experimented with the use of plastic rather than metal needles and pellets in their antipersonnel bombs. The advantage of plastic was they could not be identified by X-Ray machines. Dropped on highly populated areas, antipersonnel bombs could severely disrupt the functioning of North Vietnam. It has been claimed that the major objective of the US bombing raids on North Vietnam was not to kill its 17 million population but to maim them. As was pointed out at the time, serious injury is more disruptive than death as people have to be employed to look after the injured where they only have to bury the dead.

One of the major problems of the US forces was the detection of the National Liberation Front hiding in the forests of Vietnam. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy approved Operation Ranch Hand. This involved the spraying of chemicals from the air in an attempt to destroy the National Liberation Front hiding places. In 1969 alone, Operation Ranch Hand destroyed 1,034,300 hectares of forest. Agent Orange, the chemical used in this defoliation programme not only destroyed trees but caused chromosomal damage in people.

Chemicals were also sprayed on crops. Between 1962 and 1969, 688,000 agricultural acres were sprayed with a chemical called Agent Blue. The aim of this exercise was to deny food to the NLF. However, research suggests that it was the civilian population who suffered most from the poor rice harvests that followed the spraying.

When a report appeared in the St. Louis Dispatch about the dropping of “poison” on North Vietnam the United States denied the herbicide they were using was a chemical weapon. It was claimed that Agent Orange and Agent Blue were harmless to humans and only had a short-lived impact on the environment.

This was disputed by international experts and 5,000 American scientists, including 17 Nobel prize winners and 129 members of the Academy of Sciences, signed a petition against chemical and biological weapons being used in Vietnam. However, it was not until 1974 that the United States government stopped using Agent Orange and Agent Blue.

During the war about 10% of Vietnam was intensively sprayed with 72 million litres of chemicals, of which 66% was Agent Orange. Some of this landed on their own troops and soon after the war ended veterans began complaining about serious health problems. There was also a high incidence of their children being born limbless or with Down’s syndrome and spina bifida. The veterans sued the defoliant manufacturers and this was settled out of court in 1984 by the payment of $180 million.

The TCCD dioxin used in Agent Orange seeped into the soil and water supply, and therefore into the food chain. In this way it passed from mother to foetus in the womb. In Vietnam the dioxide remains in the soil and is now damaging the health of the grandchildren of the war’s victims.

A report published in 2003 claimed that 650,000 people in Vietnam were still suffering from chronic conditions as a result of the chemicals dropped on the country during the war. Since the war the Vietnamese Red Cross has registered an estimated one million people disabled by Agent Orange. It is estimated that 500,000 people in Vietnam have died from the numerous health problems created by these chemical weapons.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/VNchemical.htm

Syria: 'The US warns for chemical attacks'...

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US sets up teams with Israel, Jordan, Turkey against chemical attack’

Chemical bomb shells

The United States last week began laying plans for the contingency of Syrian chemical warfare by setting up joint military, intelligence and medical working teams with Israel, Turkey and Jordan, all of which are feared under threat by Syrian president Bashar Assad, debkafile’s military sources report.

DEBKAfile, August 12, 2012, 12:51 PM

Photo: victim of napalm bombs in Vietnam

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Forms of Napalm

Napalm B is chemically distinct from its predecessor Napalm. It is usually a mixture of polystyrene and benzene, used as a thickening agent to make jellied gasoline. One of the advantages of this new mixture lies in its increased safety while being handled and stored. Many accidents had been attributed to personnel smoking around stockpiles.

Napalm B has a commonly quoted composition of 21% benzene, 33% gasoline (itself containing between 1% and 4% (estimated) benzene to raise its octane number), and 46% polystyrene. This mixture is more difficult to ignite than napalm. A reliable pyrotechnic initiator, often based on thermite (for ordinary napalm) or white phosphorus (for newer compositions), has been used. The original napalm usually burned for 15 to 30 seconds while napalm B can burn for up to 10 minutes.

Napalm B was used in flamethrowers and bombs by American and Allied forces in World War II. It is believed by some that Napalm B is formulated to burn at a specified rate and to adhere to surfaces to increase its stopping power. (See below for quote from an army colonel for evidence of such efficacy whether intended or not.) During combustion, Napalm rapidly deoxygenates the available air and generates large amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Napalm bombs were used during the Vietnam War.

Napalm was also used during the Korean War.

“Napalm is the most terrible pain you can imagine,” said Kim Phúc, a napalm bombing survivor known from a famous Vietnam War photograph. “Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius (212°F). Napalm generates temperatures of 800 (1,500°F) to 1,200 degrees Celsius (2,200°F).

21:39 Gepost door Jan Boeykens in chemical attacks, Latest News, Syria, U.S. war | Permalink | Commentaren (0) |  Facebook |

'US sets up teams with Israel, Jordan, Turkey against chemical attack’

Afbeelding

The United States last week began laying plans for the contingency of Syrian chemical warfare by setting up joint military, intelligence and medical working teams with Israel, Turkey and Jordan, all of which are feared under threat by Syrian president Bashar Assad, debkafile’s military sources report...

DEBKAfile, August 12, 2012

Photo: victim of chemical weapons used by the U.S., Falluja, Iraq