25-01-14

Anti-colonialism - Right to self-determination: Gamal Abdel Nasser

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Gamal Abdel Nasser led the 1952 Egyptian revolution that overthrew the corrupt and ineffective monarchy of King Farouk. Nasser was born into a working-class family in Asyut province. His father was a postal clerk. Nasser graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo and served in the Sudan. He fought in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War at Falluja, where Egyptian forces held out against Israel until the war's end. After the 1948 war, Nasser and other junior officers blamed King Farouk for the war's substandard weaponry and lack of military strategy.

Nasser was one of the founders of the secret Free Officers group that was determined to oust Farouk and set Egypt on a different path. Although the older and better-known Brigadier-General Muhammad Naguib was put forward to the public as the head of the officers' group, Nasser was in fact the acknowledged leader. He was known for carefully listening to all viewpoints and then making decisions. On July 22, 1952, the Free Officers overthrew the monarchy in a practically bloodless coup d'état. A Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) was established with Naguib as its head. Nasser and Naguib clashed over whether to keep a parliamentary system or to establish a one-party state with populist support, a course Nasser favored. The majority of the officers favored Nasser, and a single party, the Liberation Rally, was established in 1953. After a failed assassination attempt on Nasser in 1954, the Muslim Brotherhood, with whom Naguib had close ties, was banned, and Naguib was removed from power. A new constitution was implemented in 1956 and Nasser was elected president by a huge majority of Egyptian voters. He was twice reelected to the position. A highly charismatic figure and a brilliant speaker in colloquial Arabic, Nasser was extremely popular with the majority of Egyptians and among average Arabs everywhere.

Not an ideologue, Nasser was a pragmatic political leader who sought to develop Egypt economically and socially. He moved toward socialism and the Soviet Union after his requests for military aid had been rebuffed by the United States. His regime jailed members of both the Egyptian Communist Party and the Muslim Brotherhood on the right.

After attending the Bandung Conference in 1955, Nasser joined with Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia in championing positive neutralism, in which Third World nations would not forge solid alliances with either the United States or the Soviet Union in the cold war but would instead act in their own best interests. Neither of the superpowers liked this approach, but the United States was particularly hostile to it. Steering a neutral course, Nasser opposed the Western-led CENTO/Baghdad Pact and opposed Arab regimes such as the Hashemite monarchies in Iraq and Jordan and the conservative, extremely pro-Western Saudi Arabian monarchy.

Nasser also spoke of Egypt belonging to three circles: the Arab, African, and Islamic worlds. Under Nasser, Egypt became a center for African and Arab political leaders and students. Although he was personally a devout Muslim, Nasser was committed to secular government and persecuted Islamists, particularly the Muslim Brotherhood, which sought to establish a state based on Muslim religious law and practice.

Like all Arab leaders, Nasser supported the Palestinian cause and their right to self-determination. He permitted some fedayeen (self-sacrificers) guerrilla attacks from the Egyptian-administered Gaza Strip in Israel, but he also recognized the superiority of Israel's military. Consequently he initially sought, through back channels, to negotiate settlements to the conflict with Israel. Israel insisted on face-to-face negotiations, and the attempts all failed.

In 1956 after the United States had refused to grant aid for building the Aswān Dam, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. The nationalization led to the 1956 Arab-Israeli War, in which Great Britain, France, and Israel jointly attacked Egypt. The war was a military loss for Egypt but a political victory after which Nasser became indisputably the most popular man in the entire Arab world.

During the so-called Arab cold war Nasser's influence dominated the liberal, progressive, and socialist governments in Syria and elsewhere, versus the conservative pro-Western monarchies, including Jordan and Saudi Arabia. With the formation of the United Arab Republic of Egypt and Syria in 1958, Nasser perhaps reached the peak of his popularity.

Following the devastating military losses in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Nasser accepted responsibility and resigned. Massive and generally spontaneous public demonstrations calling for his return led him to resume the Egyptian presidency, but he never regained the unquestioning support throughout the Arab world that he had previously enjoyed.

In 1970 Nasser was called upon to mediate a truce between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and King Hussein of Jordan in the bloody war between the two. Shortly thereafter he suffered a massive heart attack, in part brought on by the tensions of the negotiation, and died in late September. Although Nasser was mistrusted and opposed in most of the West and Israel, millions of mourning Egyptians joined his funeral cortege. The legacy of Nasserism, secular pan-Arab nationalism, and state-directed socialism, spread throughout most of the Arab world during Nasser's lifetime, but declined and, except in Lebanon, largely diminished after his death.

http://www.fofweb.com/History/HistRefMain.asp?iPin=WHVI232&SID=2&DatabaseName=Modern+World+History+Online&InputText="right+of

16-05-13

War against colonialism = War with Israel

Gamal Abdel Nasser.jpg

Gamal Abdel Nasser 

Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt was born in 1918 and died in 1970. Nasser was a pivotal figure in the recent history of the Middle East and played a highly prominent role in the 1956 Suez Crisis. Nasser has been described as the first leader of an Arab nation who challenged what was perceived as the western dominance of the Middle East. Nasser remains a highly revered figure in both Egypt and the Arab world.

At the age of fifteen, he took part in anti-British demonstrations. Those who protested also targeted some in the royal family who it was believed tacitly supported the power Britain still maintained over Egypt by its joint-ownership of the Suez Canal

In 1935, Nasser was wounded in the head by the British during an anti-British demonstration. In 1938, Nasser graduated from the Royal Military Academy and joined the Egyptian Army. Within the army, Nasser continued with his anti-British activities.

In 1942, an incident occurred which is said to have been the key turning point in Nasser's activities. In February 1942, the British persuaded/forced the king of Egypt, King Farouq, to accept a government that was to be headed by Nahas Pasha. At this time, Britain's power in North Africa was reaching a peak with the defeat of the Afrika Korps and this power was especially felt in Egypt. Nasser was appalled by what he considered to be the interference in the internal affairs of one country by a colonial European power. For the next seven years, he used his influence to persuade officers in the Egyptian Army that a) such interference was unacceptable and b) that all vestiges of British rule/influence had to be removed from Egypt.

Nasser fought in the 1948 war against the newly formed Israel. During this war, Nasser held his first 'proper' meeting with those officers who were willing to support his ideas for Egypt. The defeat of the Arab nations in the 1948 war, gave an added impetus to their anger especially as the Egyptian Army had to fight with faulty weapons which was linked to a supply scandal that implicated some members of the Royal Family. Nasser was clear in his own mind - the Royal family had to go and Egypt needed a new form of government. 

The defeat in 1948 strongly affected Nasser. On top of the humiliation of losing the war, Nasser was angered by the apparent corruption within certain sections of the Royal Family which it was thought hindered any chance of victory. Nasser decided to basically plot against the king for the sake of Egypt’s future.

On July 23rd 1952, Nasser helped to organise a revolt against the Royal Family and King Farouk was overthrown after a few days of bloodless rebellion. The actual figure head for the rebellion was General Neguib.

In November 1954, Neguib resigned and retired from public life. As deputy to Neguib, Nasser was the obvious choice to succeed him. This he did on November 17th 1954.

Nasser had a very clear vision for modernising Egypt. He was also keen to see Egypt free of any overtones of colonialism – a belief that was to bring him into direct conflict with Britain and France in 1956. To support his beliefs, Nasser did what he could to restore national pride to all Arab nations – not just Egypt.

The most obvious source of a foreign power being dominant in Egypt was the British/French control of the Suez Canal. Completed in 1869, the canal was designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. However the vast bulk of the physical labour required to build this engineering marvel was done by Egyptian nationals. Britain had a 40% holding in the company that ran the canal. However, despite the fact that the canal was on Egyptian ‘soil’, the benefits it brought the people of Egypt were minimal. In 1956, Nasser nationalised the canal – provoking an attack on Egypt by the French and British. This attack was condemned at an international level and the British and French had to withdraw their forces when it became clear that America did not support what they had done. In fact, the American president, Eisenhower, was openly critical of Britain and France.

Nasser’s stand against two major European powers brought him huge popularity not just in Egypt but also in all Arab nations. After this success, Nasser set about the ‘Egyptianisation’ of his country.

Nasser also made gains in other areas of domestic policy. Under Neguib, civilian titles as associated with the Royal Family, were banned. Privileges associated with the ‘old way’ were also banned. Laws were brought in that limited the amount of land someone could own and they also widened the opportunities for land ownership. In 1961, Nasser nationalised a number of corporations so that the wealth that they generated could be used to improve the lifestyle of the Egyptian people. One year later, a decision was announced that Egypt would be run on Arab socialist lines. During Nasser's time in office, the Aswan High Dam was completed. This was a project that generated world-wide attention. However, iron and steel mills, aluminum plants, car and food factories were also built. In total, over 2000 new factories were built in Egypt in Nasser's time.

However, Nasser suffered a major blow when Egypt and other Arab nations were beaten by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967. By this year, Egypt was seen as the leading Arab nation and the Arab people looked to Egypt for leadership. For Nasser, the comprehensive defeat by Israel was a serious blow and he offered his resignation. This was rejected by the people who took to the streets in June 1967 to demonstrate their support for Nasser. After the war, Nasser went to great efforts to modernise the Egyptian military and this remained one of his primary aims until his death in September 1970. His death was followed by an outpouring of national grief in Egypt. Nasser was succeeded by Anwar Sadat.

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/gamal_abdel_nasser.htm

23:03 Gepost door Jan Boeykens in Colonial wars, colonialism, Israel, Latest News, war | Permalink | Commentaren (0) |  Facebook |

18-02-13

The African War

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U.S. Air Force Delivers 2 Million Pounds Of Cargo For French West African War

February 15, 2013
 
ISTRES, France: The U.S. Air Force reached a major milestone Feb. 12 when the service hit the 2 million pounds of cargo transported mark during airlift operations from Istres, France to Bamako, Mali and other partner nations in support of French military operations in Northern Africa.

At the request of the French government, airlift operations began on Jan. 21 and the Air Force has flown 43 missions under the control of U.S. Africa Command…

Delivering 2 million pounds of cargo in just 23 days is quite an achievement.

“This operation has been extremely rewarding, supporting our French partner’s efforts…,” said Lt. Col. Shawn Underwood, 621st Contingency Response Element commander. “Working through the challenges of unfamiliar equipment and different languages made crossing the 2 million pound threshold that much more satisfying, but we know there is more work to do.”

After weeks of continuous airlift operations, French and U.S. military personnel have been working closely together every day to prepare and load cargo and personnel into C-17s.

“We have been enabling the movement of French forces in support of their operations. There have been some difficulties because of the different equipment, certificates and procedures,” said Staff Sgt. Anthony Felix, an aerial transporter assigned to the 818th Global Mobility Squadron. “We are working through these and getting the job done.”

C-17 Globemasters from the 62nd Airlift Wing, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Wash., and the 436th Airlift Wing, Dover Air Force Base, Del., staging from Istres, have also transported 830 French military personnel to Mali.

http://rickrozoff.wordpress.com/2013/02/15/u-s-air-force-...

29-09-12

Colonial wars: French soldiers in Algeria and Syria

algeria.french.troops.jpgFrench troops in Algeria

Between 1954, when the Algerian uprising against French colonial rule broke out, and 1962, when Algeria became an independent republic, some two million French soldiers crossed the Mediterranean to fight against the FLN's (National Liberation Front) guerrillas in an operation that marked a generation. Most of these soldiers were conscripts. In Paris, the developing war in Algeria led to the fall of six prime ministers, the collapse of the IVth republic, the return of General de Gaulle to power at the head of the Vth republic -- a vehicle of his own creation -- and near civil war following an attempted right-wing coup in Algiers.

During the war, atrocities were committed on both sides, and after it, with the general amnesty declared at Evian as part of its negotiated settlement, many of these were officially forgotten. France turned to interior self-modernization, while Algeria began a process of nation-building under the tutelage of the victorious FLN.

More recently, however, there has been a move to disinter the past in the wake of recent, well-publicized revelations in France concerning the extent of human-rights violations, specifically the torture and murder of those suspected of being members or sympathizers of the FLN, by the French army in Algeria and by the authorities in France itself. In recent months both the French president, Jacques Chirac, and the prime minister, Lionel Jospin, have referred to these reports, mostly stressing the need to consider them in their historical context and talking of the need for "national healing" to take place. "Let history do its work," said Chirac, interviewed recently on the television channel TF1. Former generals have also appeared on television admitting that they used torture to interrogate suspects during the Algerian War.

With the official records of the period remaining largely closed, however, and with those committing them never having been held accountable either for their orders or for their acts, other voices have been a lot less diplomatic than have those of the political establishment. 

http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2001/516/bo5.htm

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French troops in Syria

In 1920, an independent Arab kingdom of Syria was established under king Faysal of the Hashemite family. His rule ended after few months, following the clash between Syrian forces and regular French forces at the battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the league of Nations put Syrian under the French mandate. With the fall of France in 1940, Syria came under the control of the Vichy Government until the British and Free French occupied the country in July 1941. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalist groups forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate.

Photo: French soldiers in Algeria

22:13 Gepost door Jan Boeykens in Algeria and Syria, Colonial wars, Latest News | Permalink | Commentaren (0) |  Facebook |